The state participates in shaping and transmitting citizenship. From a European outlook, this special Issue of Politics & Policy focuses on the role of public policy, according to a comparative and multisectorial perspective. The special Issue originated in a Panel held on September 4, 2019 at the European Consortium of Political Research’s General Conference, at the University of Wroclaw, Poland. The articles in this special Issue draw from a plurality of methods, from sociohistory to policy ethnography, and analyze how the state, in the concrete conception and implementation of its action, is a producer of social categorizations determining the legitimate contours of citizenship. Altogether, the case studies in this issue allow us to scrutinize the government of and by citizenship, meanwhile identifying discrepancies and invariants in Europe.