Mardi 19 novembre 2019 — Séminaire DYNAMICS

  • Jesús Fernández-Huertas Moraga (Univer­sité Carlos III Madrid);
  • Jérôme Valette (Univer­sité Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne).
  • 16:30–19:00
  • PSE, 48 Bd Jourdan 75014 Paris, Salle R1-09

Jesús Fernández-Huertas Moraga (Univer­sité Carlos III Madrid)
Proces­sing time and the loca­tion choice of asylum seekers across Euro­pean coun­tries (travail conjoint avec Simone Bertoli et Herbert Brücker)

More than 3 million asylum seekers arrived into Europe between 2014 and 2016. We analyze the role of policy measures taken at desti­na­tion on the choices of asylum seekers. We bring to the data a gravity equa­tion that reflects the different types of uncer­tainty that asylum seekers face, notably concer­ning the chances of obtai­ning refugee protec­tion, the proces­sing time and the risk of repa­tria­tion. These policy measures contri­buted to shape the distri­bu­tion of asylum seekers across Euro­pean coun­tries, and produced hete­ro­ge­neous effects across different origin coun­tries. German efforts to expand their proces­sing capa­city produced a signi­fi­cant increase in appli­ca­tions from origins with high recog­ni­tion rates, which were mostly diverted away from Sweden.

Jérôme Valette (Univer­sité Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne)
Border Appre­hen­sions, Salience of Hispanic Iden­tity and Sentences in the US Federal Criminal Justice System (travail conjoint avec Simone Bertoli et Morgane Laouenan)

This paper provides econo­me­tric evidence that Hispanic citi­zens receive signi­fi­cantly harsher sentences in the US Federal Criminal Justice System when there is an increase in the number of illegal aliens that are appre­hended along the US-Mexico border. Conver­sely, sentences that Hispanic immi­grants receive remain unaf­fected. We inter­pret that this effect is due to the induced increase in the salience of Hispanic ethnic iden­tity (in response to an increase in media atten­tion and public interest towards im migra­tion), which is often asso­ciated with nega­tive stereo­types such as a propen­sity to commit crimes. This blurs the distinc­tion between Hispa­nics citi­zens and immi­grants, thus eroding the usual diffe­ren­tial in sentences between the two groups. The proposed inter­pre­ta­tion is corro­bo­rated by the analysis of the hete­ro­ge­neity of the results along several dimen­sions. Notably, the esti­mated effect is at play when judges have fewer elements to base their deci­sions and the increase in sentence length is such that it remains within the US Senten­cing Commis­sion guide­line pres­cribed range.