« Migration Triage and Experiences of Blocking : Africa, America, Europe »
21–24 June 2021, Nice (France) – University Côte d’Azur
Conference in French, Spanish, English (simultaneous translation)
REGISTRATION FOR THE CONFERENCE IS NECESSARY BEFORE THE EVENT : https://framaforms.org/inscription-au-colloque-tri-migratoire-nice-22–24-juin-2021–1621473581
On a global scale, many migrant populations are stopped in their journey at international border or on the roads and places that are gradually built up as internal state borders. The political processes of contention are currently a common denominator of the production of blocked situations. As part of a transformation of the dynamics of control and surveillance, these policies don’t succeed in completely prohibit crossings, but do limit them and produce distinctions between people who will get access to destination countries and those who will encounter barriers. In spite of strong international injunctions, states have a space for negotiating their migration policies and arrangements, even if this space remains marked by patterns of domination and dependence.
The « border effects » have in common that they confront migrants, like asylum seekers, with forms of blockage, thus lengthening waiting periods, producing new social dynamics, temporalities and spatiality where various actors intervene. The objective of the conference is to analyze the diversity of migratory situations produced by blockage at levels according to their production context. The aim of the event is to participate in the construction of a comparative framework to address these situations by putting into perspective the construction of migration policies and their effects in Africa, Latin America and Europe.
On a global scale, many migrant populations are stopped in their journey at international border or on the roads and places that are gradually built up as internal state borders. The political processes of contention are currently a common denominator of the production of blocked situations. As part of a transformation of the dynamics of control and surveillance, these policies don’t succeed in completely prohibit crossings, but do limit them and produce distinctions between people who will get access to destination countries and those who will encounter barriers. The objective of the conference « ”Migration triage” and experiences of blockage : Africa, America, Europe » is to analyze the diversity of migratory situations produced by blockage at different social, spatial and temporal scales according to their production context.
Since the 2000s, and even more in the 2010s, the migration policies of both the European Union and the United States have been shaped by increased control of borders and migration routes. Depending on national contexts, this logic has gradually imposed itself on States that until then had been designated solely as transit areas (Mexico, Morocco, Niger, etc.), or as reception areas for large movements of refugees (Jordan, Lebanon, Turkey, etc.). Other states, in subordinate geopolitical positions, have in a short period of time become host countries following massive movements of people displaced from their places of origin by « natural » disasters or political and social crises.
In both cases, there is convergence in terms of policies for controlling and tracking these movements. The logic of externalizing borders and the process of internalizing these same borders within national spaces, through the multiplication of controls, have been observed. Although these policies may present differences in terms of actions at the national and local levels, they have in common to produce stranded migration situations and the emergence of new constraints in addition to those previously described.
In this perspective, the ambition of the conference is to participate in the construction of a comparative framework to tackle these situations on three continents, Africa, America and Europe by comparing the construction of migration policies and their effects. In spite of strong international injunctions, States have a negotiating space for their migration policies and measures, even if it remains marked by logics of domination/dependence. On all three continents, « border effects » have in common that they confront migrants, like asylum seekers, with forms of blocking, thus lengthening waiting periods, producing new spatialities, and even hindering all forms of crossing.
These migrants, sometimes referred to as « in transit », despite the fact that the term has become unsuitable, are concentrated in humanitarian camps, are locked up in detention centers or find themselves confined in the interstices of urban spaces. Stranded by policies of containment, people in situation of mobility are confronted with violent institutional measures of exclusion. These spaces of liminality, border areas, precarious neighborhoods, camps, have been the subject of extensive research, focusing in particular on waiting and daily living conditions. However, depending on places and types of environment, this exclusion of foreigners is accompanied by a logic of sorting according to the categories of persons defined on the basis of international standards and their application in national legal systems (asylum seekers, internally displaced persons…) or criteria of vulnerability (unaccompanied minors, single women with children…).
This sorting process, built in the interaction between state policies and/or regional organizations, international organizations and sometimes local authorities, participate in the construction of this « long corridor » of waiting which involves all people in a situation of mobility and not only asylum seekers, and produces situations of legal and social waiting or continued mobility, at the risk of wandering situations. This marginalization can also be accentuated by the humanitarian measures of international organizations and/or civil society, which intervene in these different spaces (camps, ghettos, detention centers…) generally in the name of the vulnerability of people. This notion of vulnerability, whose use is transversal to all the actors, has different meanings depending on who states it and in what context.
Each actor involved follows his own political, bureaucratic and operational logic, including in the definition of vulnerability, and therefore determine who can get aid or not, who can access certain types of rights or not. How are constructed the interactions between the actors involved in this exclusion of people in mobility ? How does « migratory sorting » contribute to this exclusion, and how has it become a component of filtering today ? The aim of the event is to question these processes in the light of contextualized individual and collective experiences, paying attention to concrete, situated and historicized expressions of the link between local, national or supra-regional policies and their effects on the situations of mobile populations.
Panel 1 : ”Vulnerabilities”: Categorization, Limits and Bypasses
Faced with a generalized and polysemous use of the term ”vulnerability” to qualify and describe the situations of people in mobility, the objective is to question what this term produces in terms of individual and collective migratory experiences. How have vulnerability criteria defined by different authorities replaced the application of the law, introducing new forms of differentiation between people ? How do these same people seize on this category to stand out from the others ? This management of « vulnerabilities” addresses not only the question of humanitarian policies, but more broadly the question of the forms of intervention with these populations : how does the assignment of mobile people to a situation of vulnerability justify interventions as diverse as repression, ”voluntary return”, humanitarian assistance or even militancy interventions ?
Panel 2 : Bureaucratic Experiences and Administrative Wanderings
This panel will focus on the relationship to law and the construction of access to rights through migrant experiences. How the spaces of relegation produced by contention policies are also specific spaces of action for bureaucracies (of asylum, humanitarian monitoring, return…) that run on long-term prospects ? How is access to this bureaucracy negotiated at the individual or family level ? The role and status of intermediaries, the ways of bypassing them, the forms of self-presentation will be analyzed. These bureaucratic experiences can be seen both as opportunities for long-term settlement in a place in spite of uncertainty, as well as double relegation experiences for those who lack the capacity to access them. For the latter, the complexity and closure of the international bureaucratic system means keeping outside of any legal-administrative system without the possibility of a safe haven.
Panel 3 : Visibility and Invisibility in Urban Situations of Marginality
The settlement and common relegation of migrants in urban spaces marked by marginality is sometimes seen as a guarantee of relative invisibility, which would allow certain accesses, to employment for example. As a counterpoint, visibility can be a condition for negotiating the recognition of specific situations by urban actors and political decision-makers. In any case, the tension between visibility and invisibility deserves to be apprehended with regard to urban environments. In small and medium-sized cities, as are often border cities or certain transit cities, the stranded migrants are de facto visible, and the conditions of incorporation/acceptance are frequently marked by the effects of this (over)visibility. In larger cities, where dispersion may allow forms of incorporation similar to the other minority groups, mobilization and access to specific rights or measures may be less accessible. How do migrants negotiate their place in such contexts, when invisibility can mean renouncing rights and visibility can authorize forms of mobilization ?
Panel 4 : Multi-stakeholder dialogue around an original border situation : the Alpes-Maritimes
In the follow-up of a fieldwork day prior to the conference, this panel aims to build exchanges between researchers specializing in other geographical areas and civil society or institutional actors intervening on the French-Italian border. This panel discussion is in line with the creation of the Observatoire des migrations dans les Alpes-Maritimes which aims to establish a permanent dialogue between academics and civil society in order to feed public debate and to co-construct knowledge with local stakeholders.
MARDI 22 JUIN
9h : Ouverture du colloque
9h30 à 13h – Conférences d’ouverture et débat
- Harouna Mounkaila (GERMES,U. Niamey, Niger), Le désir de mobilité face au blocage et à la sélection migratoire au Sahel
- Tanya Golash-Boza (U. Californie, La Merced), Past, Present, and Future of Migration to the United States : A Human Rights Perspective
- Virginie Guiraudon (Sciences Po Paris), Les effets de 30 ans de la politique européenne des frontières de « contrôle à distance » sur les dynamiques migratoires
- Jocelyne Streiff-Fénart (CNRS- URMIS) : Modération-débat
14h30 à 17h45 – Table-ronde n°1 : Des « vulnérabilités » : catégorisation, limites et contournements
- Pascaline Chappart (U. Bergen, Norvège) et Dolores Paris (Colef, Tijuana, Mexique), La « vulnérabilité » dans l’économie morale et politique du passage des frontières : l’exemple du Niger et du Mexique
- Pinar Selek (U. Nice Côte d’Azur- URMIS), Les quêteuses d’asile dans les Alpes-Maritimes : violences et résistances
- Jeremy Slack (U. Texas, El Paso), Deported to Death : Border violence and anti-asylum policies
- Guillermo Acuña (UNA, Costa Rica), El rumor de la sospecha : desubjetivación de un sujeto histórico. las movilidades humanas nicaraguenses en Costa Rica en contextos de excepcionalidad
- Swanie Potot (CNRS URMIS Nice) : Synthèse et animation débat
18H30 : Inauguration exposition Eufemia-Utopia en partenariat avec le laboratoire de sociologie visuelle de l’université de Gênes et pot de bienvenue
MERCREDI 23 JUIN :
9h30 à 12h45 – Table-ronde n°2 : Expériences bureaucratiques et errances administratives
- Carolina Kobelinsky (CNRS- LESC) et Filippo Furri (U. Montréal), Une bureaucratie pour les morts en Méditerranée
- Simone Di Cecco (URMIS), L’accoglienza des personnes demandeuses d’asile en Italie, entre logistique et appropriation (2016–2019)
- Nadia Khrouz (U. Mohammed V, Rabat /Movida/LPED), Maroc : politique, bureaucratie et sens commun dans la détermination du « migrant désirable » ou « indésirable”
- Françoise Lestage (U. Paris- URMIS) : Synthèse et animation-débat
14h30 à 17h45 – Table-ronde n°3 : Visibilité et invisibilité dans des situations urbaines de marginalité
- Laurent Faret (U. Paris- CESSMA/CIESAS Mexico), (Im)mobilités, invisibilité et agentivité sous contraintes : migrants “en transit” à Mexico
- Bachirou Ayouba Tinni (GERMES, UAM, Niger) et Florence Boyer (IRD-URMIS- GERMES), L’accueil des étrangers à Agadez : d’une économie du transit à une politique de l’humanitaire
- Bénédicte Michalon (CNRS- Passages), La campagne comme enjeu politique. (Faire) accepter la dispersion des exilés
- Daniela Trucco (Ecole Française de Rome), La solidarité aux personnes « illégalisées » et leur sur/in-visibilité dans l’espace urbain de Vintimille
- Cenk Saraçoglu (Ankara Univ., Turkey) et Danièle Bélanger (Laval University, Canada), Mob Violence in the Neighborhood : Disciplining Syrian Refugees in the Turkish Cities
- Amandine Spire (U. Paris- CESSMA) : synthèse et animation-débat
18H15-20H30 : projection de documentaires et débat
JEUDI 24 JUIN :
10h à 13h – Table-ronde n°4 : Dialogue multi-acteurs autour d’une situation de frontière originale : les Alpes-Maritimes
- Avec la participation de :
– Toutes aux frontières, Mobilisation féministe à Nice, Maika Tormo
– ALC, Service prise en charge des MNA : Julie Chauvet
- - CAFI, Coordination d’actions aux frontières intérieures, Agnès Lerolle
– SOMICO collectif de soutien aux migrants ; Coordination du réseau interassociatif de soutien aux migrants : Henri Rossi
- - Kesha Niya, Point d’accueil et breakfast à la frontière italienne : Adèle Bras
– We world, Soutien aux familles à Vintimille : Jacopo Colomba
– Roya Citoyenne, La question migratoire dans la Roya
- Co-animation : Dolores Paris (Colef, Mexique) et Daniela Trucco (Ecole Française de Rome)
13h – Clôture du colloque
June 22 at 18H30 : Inauguration
En partenariat avec le laboratoire de sociologie visuelle de l’université de Gênes
L’exposition Eufemia-Utopia est l’objet d’une collaboration entre des artistes italiens et français et des sociologues de l’Université de Gênes et de l’Université Côte d’Azur travaillant sur de la thématique des migrations et des frontières. Elle consiste à mettre en lumière, à travers les traces laissées par des personnes de passage (dessins, messages, photos…), le carrefour migratoire que représente aujourd’hui la région transnationale Ligurie-Alpes-Maritimes. L’exposition vise à faire partager le travail de recherche autour du sens que les personnes venues des quatre coins du monde donnent à leur mobilité, à un public non académique, à travers l’expérience sensible de l’art.
Two complementary activities are planned with the aim of reinforcing the construction of a multidisciplinary and multi-space dialogue, and to initiate a comparative reflection.
These two half-days will be restricted to the speakers of the conference.
June 21 afternoon : field visit to Ventimiglia and its region (French-Italian border).
14h Départ de l’hôtel pour visite de la zone frontalière française, commentaire Christine (Amnesty International)
15h30 Grimaldi – Società Operaia di Mutuo Soccorso – Rencontre avec l’écrivain Enzo Barnabà auteur de » Il Passo della Morte » ; randonnée commentée sur le Pas de la mort.
18h, pour ceux qui le souhaitent, visite de lieux emblématiques à Vintimille, commentaires Daniela Trucco
June 24 afternoon : workshop of exchanges on methodological experiences and comparatism.
For the methodological workshop, participants in the meeting who have a strong interest for the issues addressed will be able to inform the organizers of their interest in participating, depending on the places available.
Practical information and Registration
To register for the conference, please follow the link https://framaforms.org/inscription-au-colloque-tri-migratoire-nice-22 – 24-Jun-2021 – 1621473581
The public will be able to attend the symposium in Nice upon registration. There is no registration fee. To follow the conference from a distance, registration is also necessary, see the form.
Practical Informations :
Place of the conference :
Maison des Sciences de l’Homme Sud-Est, 25 avenue François Mitterrand, 06300 Nice . Salle 031 (dite salle plate), rez-de-chaussée (côté opposé à la BU). Arrêt du tram St Jean d’Angely Université, ligne 1
Informations for participants with communication :
All speakers from outside the city will be accommodated at Hôtel Monsigny, 17 Avenue Malaussena, 06000 Nice : https://www.hotelmonsignynice.com/
Breakfast is included on site. The hotel benefits from a quiet location, in the center of Nice on the main axis with commercial facilities and direct access to all transport. The hotel is served by the Tram line N°1, it is 5 minutes walk from the train station. From the airport, Tram N°2 then Tram N°1.
To go from the hotel to the conference place, take the Tram line N°1 in the direction of Hôpital Pasteur (no change). Allow about 20–25 minutes for the trip.
For remote participation :
All pre-registered participants will receive links to connect to the sessions in the days leading up to the event. The choice of language will be made once connected.
For any specific question, please write to : Colloque.TriMigBloc@gmail.com
Organizing Committee an Institutional Support
Florence Boyer, URMIS/IRD et GERMES Niger
Laurent Faret, CESSMA/Université de Paris et IRD/CIESAS Mexique
Françoise Lestage, URMIS/Université de Paris
Dolores París, COLEF Mexique
Swanie Potot, CNRS/URMIS Nice
Institut Convergence Migrations (ICM), Institut de la Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Institut des Amériques (IDA), Fédération Sciences Sociales Suds (F3S), Université de Paris, Université Côte d’Azur